Frontiers of Science with Bill Gates #GOALKEEPERS17

Frontiers of Science with Bill Gates #GOALKEEPERS17


– We are optimistic. We think that progress can actually accelerate. The last 15 years have been wonderful, but the next 15, we can do more. And some people worry that when you talk about progress that it’ll reduce people’s commitment to make things better. They think that when
you talk about progress that it shows you’re naive and that maybe you don’t realize all those things that are left to be done and how horrific they are. So sometimes that, purely that negative side of the story gets told. But you lose something
very important if you only look at it that way. You lose the optimism about what’s possible and you lose the
information where you look at the places that have done better than others and you understand what is it about delivery, innovation, partnerships, caring, what has come together for the very best progress
and then spread that to the other places. That’s what’ll help us drive at full speed. So I have four trends that will help you understand where these improvements are coming from. And so the first of these is the frontier of science. Science is moving incredibly fast, faster today than ever before. You’ve got more people in college, more research, more
articles being published. This is where we get new drugs, new vaccines, new ways of getting in touch and making sure
that health care workers are doing everything they need to do. This is a key reason why life today is so different
than 200 years ago. Even the worst place today
has a longer life expectancy than the best had 200 years ago. Second, our breakthroughs in delivery. And it’s very tough to get things out in developing countries. Particularly out in the rural areas. And to have all these advances have the equity that we all believe in, we need innovations in
those delivery things and so we’ll look at some brilliant work being done there. Third is the idea drawing more people in, having their circle of
caring go beyond just their family to even their local community To all of humanity. And how we can take
this younger generation take the new tools that let us see things that are far away and see what’s going on and draw people in with a
lot of committed energy. And finally, allies in
action partnerships. I believe there’s the
people are committed today will get more committed and that we can draw even more in. Countries like China and India that themselves have set great examples now helping other countries that have not made as much progress. So the goal in this session is that you’ll understand why I’m inspired by these things
and you can think of how your work can contribute to these things. So let’s dive in on frontiers of science and what we’ve got there. So there’s so many different technologies, vaccines are probably at the top of the list. They are so phenomenal in terms of giving life long protection and their cost has come down and down an down and we’ve done a very good
job of combining them. So you bring a child in
just four times and they get all the big infectious diseases, they can get protection for those things. The basic metric of success
here is the reduction in childhood deaths. It was about 12 million
children under five died in 1990 now we’re down to fewer than six million and you know that is really such an incredible thing, and yet, if you give
them a multiple choice set of answers, almost no one will pick that things have gone this well. They might even think that
things have gotten worse because they’re reading
everyday about the setbacks. Now vaccines, there is a challenge. We’re only getting them out to a bit less than 80 % to the kids so we have 20 % that don’t have access. One of the reasons that it’s so hard to get that last 20 % is that vaccines have to be kept cold. This is very tough in a place where you have no source of energy, no solar panels, no electricity, no diesel power. For example, in Ethiopia, over 30 % of the cold
chain equipment is broken. It wasn’t designed to work in the tough areas. In India, we went out and surveyed and about 25 % of the vaccines had been exposed to high
temperature and a lot of those were spoiled so even
if they got to the children they weren’t going to have
that kind of positive impact that they’re supposed to have. So this idea of how do
you keep vaccines cold, it was a challenge, kind of a scientific challenge and that’s one of the
things our foundation likes to do is really educate scientists on what ideas they could work on that would make a huge difference because they don’t get to
go out in the world and see what would really have the big impact. And so here a cold chain was put forward. There’s a group of inventors that worked in a group called Global Good that I support and they came up with a number of ideas. So you’ll hear from a couple of the inventors and they’re really have
made a lot of progress. They have things that are ready to go out in the field and it’s very exciting. So let me welcome Jenny Hu. (upbeat music) (audience applauding) Hi Jennie – Thanks. Every year, vaccines save millions of lives. But they’re finicky, they must be kept in a narrow temperature range between two and eight degrees celsius in order to work properly. If they get too warm or too cold, they don’t work and they
don’t protect against disease. They have to stay in
this temperature range in an uninterrupted cold chain that reaches from the factory all the way to the clinic or health post where they’re actually
delivered to the children. These health posts can be
in a lot of different areas. Some of them are in cities, areas where you might
have reliable electricity. Some of them are in more remote places where the grid could be
unreliable, frequent outages. And some of them don’t have
any electricity at all, they’re off-grid. Each country could have over 10,000 of these facilities, each serving several thousand people and I’ve visited some of these clinics. I’ve met mothers who carry their children several Kilometers to be there to get their vaccines. But all too often, they find out when they get there, the refridgeerator is broken, the vaccines are spoiled and they’ve just wasted their time. And I’ve seen at these clinics, piles of broken refridgeerators that just get shoved outside because they’re not working, they’re not ding their job. They’re not keeping the vaccines cold. And this is an example of an ice lined refridgeerator. This is old technology that’s been around for a while. But it’s got a few problems. So something like this can sometimes keep the vaccines too cold and freeze them. At the same time, it doesn’t keep them cold for long enough when the power goes out. And there’s multiples
of power fluctuations so they can break easily and sometimes they just aren’t properly designed for the environment. So this one for example, we found at a clinic in Africa. We brought it here to show you. It’s got missing covers, it probably over heated and had to get more ventilation in there. It’s rusty from the humidity. I’ve actually been at clinics and we’ve seen refridgeerators that are so big they don’t fit through clinic doors and had to be left outside. And so these are problems
that my group wanted to address and we did that by building a better refridgeerator. We call it the Metafridge and here it is. (audience applauding) This Metafridge just
started as an idea four and a half years ago. But I actually started building the first prototypes
in my apartment closet, before moving to a garage. We built our own environmental chamber to do the testing. But it worked out and we’ve been able to improve and make progress and we’ve moved to a research lab and we’ve built a great team that’s been working on this. Some of them are actually
helping out today and more around the world. So the first challenge
that we wanted to address with this was how to keep vaccines cold when the power is going out all the time. The fridge in your house is only going to keep your food cold for a couple of hours during a power outage. Something like an ice lined refridgeerator will give you a day or two. But we actually went out, we measured power in a whole bunch of different countries and we’ve seen outages that lasted five days or even more. So we thought about how to address that problem. So this refridgeerator plugs into the wall like a regular refridgeerator. But what it does with that power is make ice and this whole top of the fridge is filled with ice. Our innovation was to add a thermosyphon like this that is actually
inside the fridge. And it’s basically a sealed tube. It’s got some fluid inside and it super efficiently
takes heat from the bottom of the fridge in the vaccine chamber and moves it up towards that ice block. We’ve got an infrared video that shows you how that process works. So up top you’ve that cold, you’ve got that ice up here and when the thermosyphon is activated you can see the cold front moving down and that’s heat being sucked out of the vaccine chamber moved up through the thermosyphon to the ice block where it’s slowly melts that ice over a long period of time. So this thermosyphon technology allows us to keep the
vaccines at exactly the right temperature really stably
without any power at all. So when this ice is fully frozen when the power goes out, the vaccines will stay at
that temperature for five to nine days depending on
the ambient temperature. This unit here, we actually just plugged
in for a few hours on Monday afternoon
and it’s been unplugged since then and it’s still at four degrees and it’s probably gonna
stay there for another week. (audience applauding) The next problem that we tackled was power fluctuations. We’ve been out and seen
a lot of different places where the grid is really unreliable. Power fluctuates we have
what’s called brown outs where there’s too much load on the grid and the volt just drops. And then when the voltage comes back on, you’ll often see spikes, surges that can be several
times the nominal voltage and all these things break components, break fridges, lead to
those piles of broken equipment not doing their job. So this fridge has an
integrated power system. It’s actually built in so it’s always protecting the fridge, it keeps it safe from those surges. And not only that, when the voltage is high or low, instead of being broken, this fridge can harness that energy and can keep running. We’ve tested it in areas where the voltage is a third of what it should be. And this fridge just
keeps on running and keeps the vaccines safe. Another thing that we’ve done is, we know that we’re
engineers working in Seattle and we don’t always know
what’s best for everybody. So we want to go out and
we learn from people. So we’ve put these prototypes out in field sites, out in clinics, talked to a lot of nurses, technicians, got feedback about what was working. And about what we could do better. One of the things we found out is that nurses often
just have no way to know about their environment. They don’t know how long the power may have been on or off. They might see from the thermometer inside that the refridgerator is cold now but if they go home for the evening they don’t know what temperature the vaccines are going to
be when they come back. The power may have gone out over night and they could come back
to spoiled vaccines. So what we’ve done is
built in an integrated real time monitoring system. It’s got temperature sensors. It knows when the power is on or off and it’ll tell you about it. It’s got a display here. so if I’m a nurse I can look at this display and before I go home on a Friday morning I can see that this refridgeerator is going to stay cold for five more days. So I can g home with confidence. I know that when I come back in, my vaccines are going to be safe. And if I even get a text message, I can see that this refridgerator might have a problem and I can call a technician, but I know I have a few days to get that service before
the vaccines are ever at risk. So that’s the Metafridge. (audience applauding) And there’s a lot of
really cool technology in here and we’re engineers, we love technology. But we know that technology
isn’t always enough. We wanted to make sure
this became a product. And one of the clinics and was actually working with people and
were able to do it’s job. So we’ve been spending
our time over the last couple of years working with
a manufacturing partner. Going back and forth to the factory, making sure that it’s
actually mass producible, but still high quality and affordable. And today I can tell you this MetaFridge is in production, it’s in use in clinics actually helping more kids get vaccinated. (audience applauding) However not every child who needs vaccines can make their way to a clinic. Sometimes we actually
have to take the vaccines and bring them out to the children. So that’s what my colleague, Morgan Fowler is working on. – Thanks Jennie. So in many parts of the world, kids live in places too remote to access the vaccine clinics. In these areas, the vaccinators take the vaccines directly out to the
kids, closer to the kids, out to the remote vaccination sites. About 50 % of vaccines in Africa are delivered in this manner. Consider the Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Here kids really need
the mobile vaccinators because this is one of the most geographically and
logistically challenging countries to work in. It’s the largest country
in sub-Saharan Africa yet has few roads. Vaccinators use hand
drawn maps like this one to find where they’re supposed to go. This is Papa Blandine Mbwey, she’s been a vaccinator
for 10 years in the DRC covering part of a
region of 125,000 people. Using the same old
vaccine carrier technology that vaccinators across Africa have been using for the past 50 years. This is a problem particularly
in Blandine’s region because there’s no power
grid, few roads and no cars. Only eight of 21 health posts in Blandine’s region have any kind of refridgeeration at all. The ice pack vaccine carriers just don’t do a good enough job in order to reach the next level of vaccine coverage. So I saw these limitations first hand while in Uganda about seven years ago. And it was clear to me then that’s what is really needed is vaccine carriers that have no need for any ice at all. And so that’s what I and a team around the world have been working on for the past couple of years and I want to show you what we’ve done. This is the Indigo Vaccine cooler. It does what nothing else in the world currently does. This cooler will keep vaccines at the right temperature
for a long period of time with absolutely no ice, no batteries and no electricity
needed during cooling, no infrastructure at all! (audience applauding) And you’re looking at
one of the very first ones that exist in the
world out of a factory instead of out of a machine shop. The rest of them that exist are off in Africa doing what they do best vaccinating kids. It’s really easy to use. When you want to make the cooling start, you open a mechanical valve like this and the cooling starts. When you don’t want cooling, pull it out. No electricity needed at
all and when the valve is turned off, the cooler can sit on the shelf somewhere remote using absolutely none of its cooling energy. When you need cooling, just turn it on with a turn of the valve. The unit is also rechargeable. You can put it in something like a kiln that will heat it up and make it ready for
a whole nother cycle. So there you go, vaccines
at the right temperature at the right time with absolutely no ice, no electricity and no batteries. (audience applauding) But how do we do this? So we start with something like a thermos that limits the amount of heat that comes into the unit. And then instead of adding ice to make it cold we actually have an internally built layer of water on the inside that we keep at a very low pressure which makes the water evaporate at a very low temperature. Five degrees celsius,
the perfect temperature for vaccine storage. So, what does this look like in the world? What does the future look like with the Indigo cooler? Well let’s ask somebody, let’s meet somebody whose actually using them in the field. Please join me in welcoming
Blandine Papa Bandine and her husband David from the DRC. (audience applauding) Bienvenue, Blandine and David, hey Merci. Blandine has been participating in a field test in the DRC where we have taken all
the ice pack carriers and replaced them with these
brand new Indigo coolers. Eight coolers covering a
population of 125,000 people. And already vaccinators are reaching kids that have not been reached before. Before we started this field test, there was, the vaccinators reached about 20 of these remote vaccination sites in a month’s time period. But now, this month, in September, they expect to be able to reach 120 remote vaccination sites due to the capabilities of the Indigo
cooler. (audience applauding) Our goal is that soon all vaccinators across Africa will have access to the
Metafridge, the Indigo and other advanced cooling technologies in order to vaccinate all kids. Thank you for being here today. (audience applauding) – So Blandine, I’m curious how has the Indigo changed the way that you’re able to
go out and provide vaccines? (speaking foreign language) (audience applauding) – [Translator] The Indigo
has helped me tremendously because it has helped
me to reach the children that are in remote villages of difficult access. Also with its five day autonomy we can reach children
that have been missed in previous campaigns and also to have access
to quality vaccines and thus increase vaccine coverage. (audience applauding) – Well that’s fantastic, I want thank David,
Blandine, Morgan, Jennie and all the inventors at Global Good for working on this very tough problem of getting vaccines out to every child. Thank you. (audience applauding)

3 Replies to “Frontiers of Science with Bill Gates #GOALKEEPERS17”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *