Lecture 56: Machinery for Land Drainage, Land Reclamation and Estate Maintenance Part – II

Lecture 56: Machinery for Land Drainage, Land Reclamation and Estate Maintenance Part – II


Welcome students for my lecture number 56
ah you might have heard my earlier lecture in which I talked of the Machines for Land
Drainage, Land Reclamation and Estate Maintenance Machines. Now I discuss that there are we
have kept these in different parts and the second part which I will be dealing with now
. Well here we would like to see some of the specific machines which have been used for
some specific requirements. It is essential for you to know that these
many a times we talk of what exactly is this land drainage and then land reclamation as
I said and estate maintenance . Land drainage is one which is very important when you are
talking of irrigation equipment and you are doing irrigation sometimes. So, much of water
comes that you would like to drain that water otherwise the crop will simply get inundated
the field and then even the crop which is there either it is a bush crop or it is a
cash crop or whatever . So, in order that we should have machines
which will drainage or which will remove the water as and when required . So, for that
we have machines which called drainage machines sometimes we would like machines that they
should make holes because sometimes we are talking of orchard plantations, at that time
we would like that number of holes will be created of a certain size . So, we would have
certain machines for that now with these background I think let me go through the lecture which
I have prepared for you and we will have more discussion as and when we come to that .
Well what is estate maintenance yeah this is one subject which you as an agriculture
engineer may be you would say that where is the relevance of that, but I think it has
a great relevance here . Because we are a process of preserving and extensive area of
land this is what the estate maintenance . The requirement of estate maintenance machinery
what are the requirements see we have observed down I think it is worth going through it
for time being. So, that at least you understand what exactly we mean by these see the heavy
pulls . Supposing, you are trying to use this then for a stone clearance lot of stones are
there you would like to clear those things for ah cutting and scrubbing or clearing of
the materials for you would like that something has to be done for this .
Then flail hedge and verge trimming you might it will required sometimes maybe trim trimming
of the trees some of them trimming ah trimming of short bushes maybe some of hedges which
are where you would like to clean them for that you would require . As I so told you
earlier hole digging maybe you will require holes for plantations.
So, level of plantation you would require at different sizes and all so you drag that
machines for that ah fencing yes fencing post many a times we require fencing posts . Because
when we have to do fencing of that there also you require heavier posts and those holes
need to be made. Now it is once we are talking of mechanization we have to have machines
which will do these operations ah very fast and that is why it is essential that we must
use these machines instead of going for manual. And as such there is no point talking of manual
as such because the people are not available and digging a hole ah even if for two feet
or three feet hole it will require a lot of time of a human being and the equipment sometimes
some of the equipment which it is not possible. That is why we need to get the right kind
of machines and with right kind of power source for clearing and doing the job at the fastest
time that we can do . Road sweeping and slurry clearance sometimes it is also possible that
sometimes slurry of the refuse of power plants or some other things when you require and
need to do . And sweeping of the roads may be sometimes
lot of ah say because of the storm etcetera when the bushes or when the trees fall into
that maybe you will require machine for clearing that. So, you can talk of road sweeping when
it virtually cleaning of that so this these are the requirements of estate maintenance
machinery ah what what are the types which are available.
Well we will show you what are these, but then have a list of these. For example, the
tractor winches which are required sometimes when you want to pull the bigger logs of food
and all that and you will require these winches which are connected one location and then
there pulled by the heavy power machinery. And so you the tractor operatory stone pickers
yeah some of these ah stones which are there we need to pick the bigger ones could be there
and we need to clean and we will need to pick up that . Rotary slashers see sometimes on
the air air a tract or the maybe that lawns or gardens we would like to maintain a certain
coverage of growth of grass not that very high. So, for that we we have machines which
are known as a rotary slashers . Then the rotary cutters maybe they are the
these could be called cutters as well when there is slightly higher this thing then post
hole digger as I said that for digging the holes you there known as post hole digger
tractor mounted towing trolley yeah . Some of the sometimes you would like to carry
ah maybe about 200 152 100 ah kg of material . And in short duration of time in in less
location and less place then such trolleys are also useful to us we have these machines
and we would like to have a look that you should appreciate where there used and how
they are used . See the tractor winches as as I told you that
these machines are very much essential for example, you see here that this is these are
the wood logs which are there . Now, they are connected in fact, through this
rope arrangement through this they are to the power source they are very much connected
you can see here that they are connected they connected here. And these are the places where
they have been tied down because this is otherwise it is not possible to carry the these .
So, these are used for very heavy pull you are trying to pull this this heavy ah size
of logs or to certain extent or to some location or you would like to pull them and then later
on they can be lifted on the ah some of the towards and can be lifted to another location
or put into trucks for transportation etcetera. It is possible then winch what are the components
of this see the winch drum ah this is these the winch drum which is here which has been
shown here . Then the wire ropes as I showed told you that
these are the wire ropes which are there these locations because these are very strong. And
mind you that these ropes are are proper designed ropes these ropes are just not any rope which
can be used, because on the basis of the strength of this itself is the load which you have
here you will be pulled. Otherwise even if we per the tractor is of
a high horsepower and you do not have these ropes which are strong enough they will not
be able to pull this. So, we have the winch drum on both the locations here and the other
details . So, this is one equipment which is used for clearing the ground. Now, ah in
the series of this we are telling you what are the things which are ah used and let us
see what are other things which have been used .
Tractor operated stone picker well ah you could see here that the stones were there
and now you these need to be picked up because ah it is essential that it is not possible
to broom them off and all that and many a locations these stones need to be removed
for clearing the ground or for clear making the hole location acceptable and to the requirement
of the job which is which is planned for the future.
So, this is used for a stone picking yes and definitely as the name suggests then what
are it is components the various components of this well ah it is connected you can see
that these connected due to the tractor over here and it is simply pulled here .
Hydraulic system yes ah it has to be hm hydraulic system power or hydraulic power which has
to be used as I told you earlier . And it was very nice that we we introduced you the
hydraulic circuit which has which was told you earlier .
Because this is the one which will be required quite often in all these a heavy machinery
wherever is chase whether you are talking of lifting cranes bigger cranes which are
lifted . Which are lifting some of the ah you can see
there some of the used material sometimes when there is accidents you might find bigger
cranes which are used, sometimes cranes are used for lifting people to locations and remove
them from some some of the problems which has take place particularly if someone say
the fire has taken place and there you would like to remove people .
So, some of these things which will be required so rotary picking and then ah collecting unit
yeah this is a rotary unit which picks and then collect collection and these corrections
will be put at one location and then later on you can be these can be pulled and discharged
at one location . The various specifications of the one which as shown over here are the
width is about 150 centimeters 1.5 meter . The speed at which these are to be taken well
this is ten to be speed which is given from 3 to 6 because many a times when the when
it is very heavy there you will require that lower a speed, but that it has to be pulled
and then if these these stones are stronger smaller.
Then maybe up to 6 kilometer 7 kilometers can be used minimum rock diameter ah 5 centimeter
well this this has hardly any meaning although out of literature if you find such things
are there . But then this doesn’t have any meaning as such what exactly is required is
we need to remove those those boulders or a small stones which are there mean they need
to be picked up and then they need to be removed. So, as such ah definitely we will talk of
a size it is not that we are talking of very big ones, but if you can look at these you
will find that yes this is required for such work. And hence a minimum and maximum situation
is given for such machine. If the is a very big boulder maybe it will be of the size of
this then definitely we are not talking of lifting or picking such a thing . So, there
is a relevance of giving this minimum and maximum size of the rock or the stones which
are to be picked . Well ah rotary slasher actually as I said
for grass and weed cutting many a times as such when we call of weeds particularly more
relevance in a crop field . But then when you are talking of grasses you see when we
are talking of grasses we are talking of maintenance of lawn maintenance of a aero aircraft landing
say hm place etcetera. Or any orchard which is there and where lot of grasses are there
in between the in a plants or the bushes we would like to clean .
Now, what what are the different components of this well the components are simple. In
fact, this is a tractor drawn unit and it has this particular unit where we have beneath
this we have the rotary blades which are there. So, as connected via ah you can see here that
the PTO and the from this is a cardan shaft which is used and on both sides ah through
this PTO is a is a hooks joint. So, this joints are connected and then it
comes to this ah gearbox be here. So, a certain speed we are getting from the PTO and that
speed is you can say manipulated to get the right kind of a speed which is required for
this particular RPM of this. So, we are getting about 540 RPM or depending upon what we have
for the tractor which is there. So, about and there are two blades in this maybe we
will show you the operation of this ah now and you will be a then you can appreciate
what it is . There is a guard here yes this is important
so that sometimes when this cutting maybe that the stones etcetera which are there may
fly off and it may hit the people or the persons if somebody’s around. So, that is why there
is a proper guard is there and also for whatever cut material is there will cut material will
not be thrown off into the air, but it will because these are meant for actually you can
say carpet like maintenance . For the for the grass which is there these
are not meant for very heavy ah tall grasses maybe 3 4 4 feet or so . For them in fact
we use the flame watts which are having actually about one and one and half feet chains and
those chains are useful for cutting of the those taller ones, but these are meant for
a carpet sort of a operation and carpeting of the grasses. So, these are you can say
the finer ones and more sophisticated and sort of used for such equipment we may like
to give you a operation of this. So, you can have you can see that this you
ah see here that cardan shaft is rotating taking power from the PTO there and this is
the hole slasher, here below this we have the blades which are there two blades are
there in this. And the rotary blades which are there and at the end the blades are connected
we will see the operation of this when it will starts moving yes ah it is started moving
. Now, you can see that the carpet virtually
you can see here that what is the type of grass which has been hm created. Now you you
do not know even where is the grass which goes ah maybe once these are removed you will
find that proper lines are there on the two sides here. There are lines which can be easily
corrected because the ah it is simply topping off you are simply topping off the grass which
is there you can see the condition which has been met .
And ah well the grass is near the blades need to be taken care of properly sharpening of
the blades is important . And you can see that where are those locations where ah the
whole thing is in in operation now. Well this is this is what a rotary slasher is and it
is meant for certain specific purposes such for operation it takes power from the PTO
of the tractor. We know the PTO of power is about 540 RPM
and in fact, you know that the maximum power we get from the PTO . So, better utilization
of the power of the tractor is done through such machines if they are utilized for a longer
duration of time. So, better matching could be these equipment which are used .
The rotary cutters or boom mowers sometimes we are we would like that the the whole tree
sometimes streaming of the trees are required. And maybe it is not possible that people can
go on top of this and then trim it , but then this machines are available and these machines
can do the job of trimming . Well here these are as such it is written
here you can have a look at this is used for overgrown and neglected hedges to reduce them
to the reasonable proportion. Well ah hm either to maintain the beauty of that area or to
see that they don’t fall into the electrical lines and all that which may come into picture.
And that is why you can see here that they are meant for cutting and trimming of the
ah plants ah bigger plants. The component regardless of what you have
the hydraulic machinery the hydraulic system is definitely one of these and you should
know . So, I would like to tell you here that hydraulic system you must be very clear and
good knowledge about the hydraulic system, when you are talking of or you are thinking
of even changing or design or designing a new type of equipment for any ah earthmoving
machinery or for such tasks like trimming of the trees or even for harvesting of some
of the fruits . We are talked in one of the lectures about
harvesting of fruits if you want that may be that the hydraulic system will be used
and the person can go closer and then harvest those fruits. So, that they don’t fall and
if they fall the ah quality will be deteriorated. So, even for that you would definitely require
the hydraulic system here and which takes power from the tractor tractor itself . Now
the maximum reach horizontal you is 5.5 meter and maximum reach vertical 4.8 . Now these
are some of the important things which which are to to be taken into consideration depending
upon the size of the tractor that you have size by mean the power of the tractor .
And then also the CG of this tractor see depending upon the CG of this which is very important
. So, you cannot go as high as possible see that is why there is a cap on the vertical
and the horizontal distances , otherwise there there is every chance that this particular
machinery will topple the CG will change because they are narrow narrow track machines .
And therefore it is very essential to maintain this maximum and maximum reaches in the horizontal
and vertical direction very, very important. Well other guards are definitely important
because until unless you have the guards maybe that whatever is being cut will be thrown
and then it will thrown on to ah maybe the chips could come onto the person itself who
is involved in the system or sideways or it may be thrown off onto the atmosphere or to
other locations and scattered everywhere. So, we would like that this ah sort sort of
things must be taken care of carefully and understood before they are being used for
your purpose . Well another thing which which I said earlier
is the post hole digger this is one equipment which is very ah extensively used in in most
of the operations particularly for orchards development and different types of plantations
which we want to have . Because as I said making a hole of about 4
inches 5 inches diameter or 6 inch in diameter and about 50 centimeter, 60 centimeter depth
is not easy. You require some of the equipment which manually it is very, very tough and
that is why ah these equipment which is known a post hole digger is one which is one which
is very ah commonly used. Now, it takes power hm you can see here that
it takes power from the PTO of the tractor see here this is the from PTO of the tractor
it is taking the power under connected to the ah 3 point linkage here. And a see this
is power here and this is a particular blade you can say that which which will have certain
diameter because in this is in the form of a auger you must have seen augers .
So, they keep on moving and this will once I show the operation of this you will appreciate
that yes the these augers actually churn out the material hm as they go down while giving
a certain force of this and take the material and then ultimately this comes out .
So, the hm this specifications of this so the telescopic shaft definitely we have a
telescoping shaft as I told you here and both sides just like the earlier one . Since we
are taking power from the tractor PTO this is the only method you have to have a cardan
shaft or a telescopic shaft which which can be extended now telescopic shafts particularly
. So, they they can be extended depending upon
the length that is why ah it is telescopic here it can you can see here that you can
increase the length . And the ah the connection here to here is through the universal hooks
joint which is employed and this is the digger the digging blade which is there .
The auger length is varying varying length, but generally you will find these about 76
centimeter or so . The auger type is a screw type auger as if this screw moves inside and
then you get the various thickness of the auger sheet is generally three to 4 millimeter
that means, this is the auger which is there and the thickness of the blade which is there
has about 3 to 4 millimeter is the thickness of that .
It is important because these are is made of special material. In fact, I have planned
another lecture which I will be telling you at the end of this course because at about
the material what are the materials which are required for ah which part of the or which
component of particular equipment . So, the the these materials of this auger
is very important because it has to sustain cut the soil and then get inside and remove
the soil. So, lot of scouring of the these blades takes place while they are going to
different types of soils sometimes they will go into sandy soils sometimes they will go
into hard soil sometimes they will go into stony soils and things like that.
So, we need to look into this and we need to see that they remain strong ah enough and
that is why the the material of construction of this is a special material which is used
to , may be that we will like to show you in the working of this particular equipment
. See let us see yeah yeah you can have a look
at this how it is connected you can see that this connected to this side from here and
then this is the auger. Now, we will see how this operates the power will come to the PTO
through this cardan shaft and then from here to this box here . And then it will come to
this yes you see the operation here you can use it anywhere you want .
Of course, we are not talking of completely stony land, but then definitely we are talking
of the the places where ah such swire is there this is softer swire it appears. And that
is why it is easier to make this particular hole easy maybe the the capacity their capacity
depends on several holes of certain size per hour. So, they are known as as per there capacity
and as per the size of these plates which are important this is the equipment which
will help you in ah making it as early as possible.
So, you can have a look at this the speed at which you want to remove the material you
can see the material has been totally removed then it is cleaned and later on you can go
to another hole ah and so on , complete hm yeah well so this is about the post hole digger
. Now, another tractor mounted towing trolley
this way we have developed at IIT Kharagpur in fact, it is not a big job done . But then
this is the one which we are using it and for you can see that in a small area in a
small locations if you want to have you can use this thing .
The length is about 1.5 meter width is 1.5 meter and loading capacity goes up to 250
k g or so . And this is very handy it is connected to the 3.0 linkage of the tractor and transfer
transport materials you can be ah the fertilizer seeds oil drums several things we may have
a look at the working of such equipment here very handy equipment .
So, and well although these equipment hm are available the the knowledge of agriculture
engineer or the ingenuity of the agriculture will be on the use of them. What is required
at what time when will ah particular item will be used . Not necessary that if you have
the bulldozer or if you have the dozers you can use it at each and every time because
they have the power and all that, but sometimes for short duration depending upon the requirement
you can keep on changing this let us have a look at this video.
If you have yeah I think some material is based transporter you can never look at this
some material is being transported here and it is easy ah we can maintain a certain angle
to this so that it will not fall. And it doesn’t require so much of a space about 1.5 meter
width only ah the of this particular item the video gives you a lot of information if
depending upon what you want to do . So, in this well you can use for any other
requirement if you have . So, I can tell you that in these specific equipment that we have
talked so far. It is very essential that we keep these in to at into our knowledge and
try to see what machinery is required how cost effective a particular machinery will
be for the job that is there. Whether you want to ah create a park whether
you want to create orchards or what is the time apart and exposure of material and bulldozing
of materials or you can say plain land etcetera. So, this is all depends on what you have the
information is fed to you and now it is on you to look into these and try to use. I hope
you will have ah several questions many a times because as an engineer we are not going
into the more details of the mechanics of the system the system have been told to you
. Now, what what is the type of job it can do
and what are it is important components where they can fail you must have an idea about
this you must know what are the critical components which should be kept in inventory. So, that
if it is required it can be replaced immediately and the system will work so these are very
important things which you must have I am sure that you will like to have ah questions
which we cannot know handle at any time that is required and I think we will close here
and. Thank you very much.

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