MIDIEVAL WEAPONS AND COMBAT – The Longbow (MIDDLE AGES BATTLE HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)

MIDIEVAL WEAPONS AND COMBAT – The Longbow (MIDDLE AGES BATTLE HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)



the bow the long bow holds a special significance in the hearts of Englishmen it's the weapon of the underdog against the oppressor a zinc or band of brothers the few against the many it's the honest weapon of the common man it was the weapon that took on the might of feudal France and shook it to its core the skill and courage of English bowmen changed the face of war on the medieval battlefield and at the heart of this military revolution was a simple stave of wood fashioned into the most beautiful deadly and perfect weapon the defining campaign for the longbow took place at the beginning of the Hundred Years War in 1340 head with the third laid claim to the French throne and launched a series of dramatic raids into northern France these raids were called shovel shades the principal weapon was fire hit and run lightning attacks what the English King was doing whatever was doing was he was saying to the French look your Kings not protecting you he's not looking after you where is he where is his army now if you swore loyalty to me things would be better but most of the French didn't see it that way on the continent the English was seen as the dregs of humanity brutish and ignoble and most of France had no wish to have Edward on their throne but he was determined to fight for the French crown in July 1346 Edward sailed with an invasion force to France he had an army of fourteen thousand men the largest army that had ever set sail from England at that point and in that army more than half of them were archers in fact seven and a half thousand were archers six weeks later this relatively small army stood against a massive French force withstanding wave upon wave of heavily armoured knights on the battlefield of Crecy though heavily outnumbered the English army was battle-hardened and highly disciplined the Battle of Crecy was the greatest test of nerve and skill that the longbowman had ever faced English armies of the later Middle Ages were famed for their long bowmen their prowess was brought about by a culture of constant practice the English archers at crécy would have practiced just like this today I'm shooting with the fraternities and George a group who keep that tradition of community shooting alive they're shooting at the marks and this is a key skill to medieval military archery the marks are set out across country at different ranges and the skill of the archer is to read the landscape which falls and dips often deceiving the eye and to range his arrows they're trying to get as close as possible to each mark medieval English archers were renowned for their skill to be battle ready it was essential that they were accurate over all sort of terrain just look at this forest of arrows behind me that's the strength of military archery lots of archers all shooting together all ranging together and dropping their arrows into a killing zone this is just with 70 archers shooting three arrows imagine an English army with 7500 archers the effect is devastating every arrow had to count a single arrow is a complex carefully crafted and expensive missile at crécy the English would be up against the full might of the French armored cavalry how effective with their arrows be against these steel clad Knights how much punch does an arrow need to penetrate armor to find out I've come to the ballistics test site at the Royal Military College of science shravani it's where the British Army still tests its small arms today I've invited champion bowmen mark Stretton to come along it takes a hundred and fifty pounds power to draw his bow fully which is at the extreme top end of the sort of bows used it Cressey on the firing range a Doppler radar records the exact speed the arrow is traveling precisely measuring the rate at which it decelerates excellent result you've got a reading we have testing my god just like this very what does that mean well we got from the bow here we're going off at run about 52 meters a second run up here after 800 milliseconds we're going down to 42 meters a second so actually losing quite a lot of velocity so it's decelerating suzelle quietly yeah but how significantly does this rapid loss of speed affect the arrows ability to punch through armor here we are back at the laboratory and what we're going to try and do now is find out what this arrow would have done to a piece of armor its munition quality that's to say it's steel but not specially hardened steel and we're going to be able to shoot the arrow from an air cannon very controlled conditions the cannon has been calibrated so we can replicate different velocities and therefore replicate the arrow being shot at different ranges we'll start at the furthest range and find out what this will do our first shot is equivalent to a range of about 80 meters booty wall it's made a dent but I don't think that's penetrated its bounced out the second shot is equivalent to only 30 meters away has just punctured the armor and at most would have only bruised the knight a third shot is going to be equivalent to a range of just 20 meters here the Knights were almost on top of the archers so significantly bigger hole yes yes that done a lot more damage look at that really gone through yeah it's gone past the shoulder and gone right in there yeah so man that's wrong that's at close range that's 20 meters there we go and it's gone into the a curtain this has really made a difference in springing the arrow out but the arrow has gone in there it's penetrated deep that's one very ill man these tests suggest that it was only a close range that an arrow could be relied on to penetrate the armor of an advancing French knight and yet in 1346 at the Battle of Crecy the flower of French nobility lay dead and dying at the feet of the English archers just what was it that made these men so effective not all long bows were the same there are clues that many had a more sophisticated shape than the simple curve that is so familiar today in the centuries prior to the Battle of Crecy the English had gone on crusade where they've encountered different bows and different tactics archers in the East fought in a completely different way to the European counterparts they fought on horseback they rode into battle and shot their bows from their horses wave after wave with hit-and-run tactics shoot their bows and turn away come back again for a second way they used a completely different type of bow was made of different materials and it was a different shape it was curly the limbs were reflex maybe this influenced later European design no medieval English bows of any shape have survived to the present day the only evidence we have dates from Tudor times when Henry the eighth's flagship the mary-rose sank in 1545 the oxygen-free atmosphere of the Solon's bed preserved a treasure trove of Tudor artifacts collections manager Andy elkerton has beautiful everyday objects from tankards to shoes which have survived intact that just shows the state of preservation that you've got something leather organic material that when normally would truly Romeo you that was remarkable when the ship went down is a living community the crew are on board they have their personal possessions professional effects the ship's equipments there the weaponry is there and is yourself know the long bows are there Henry the eighth was a passionate Archer and he made sure his flagship was manned with the finest longbowman in the land these are their bows 137 offer they're finally tapered ends suggests they were of a very particular type to an expert who has studied them closely bow maker Chris Boyton when I first saw these bows I was initially a bit puzzled by the the fineness of the tips and generally when people make bows replicas they represent that with tips which are slightly thicker than this and it's often been my my with you that the bow makers in this period and earlier actually turn the tips or reflex them away from the the back of the bow because this is the belly verse of the bow actually this is the way it bends back so that this curve is that way yeah then I'll snap your forward like that like a snake medieval manuscripts support Chris's theory reflux bows bows that curve back at the tips are often illustrated this extra curvature makes the bows limbs spring back faster propelling the arrow with greater velocity bow making was a major industry in the Middle Ages the best straight grain timber for bows came from southern Europe hundreds of Bowyer's had their workshops near the port of London had commissioned Chris poitain to make me a reflex bow like the ones on the Mary Rose he's ordered a magnificent piece of you the ideal wood for bow making that's what Peter was is fairly hefty for the town of other we're making and the actual draw weight of the body should be just perfect for what we want to do with it you has a natural lamination two different types of wood bonded organically together in the same tree the darker honey color is the heartwood it forms the plump rounded belly of the bow it naturally resists compression it's the powerhouse of the bow then on the back of the bow we have this creamy SAP wood it's the spine that holds it all together it resists tension and stops the bow breaking once the bow has been roughed out the reflux curves must be put in first the ends of the stave are boiled to make them flexible bending it over the former is going to be a critical moment move quickly now Chris watch down on the end Domeier I've started to bend and now wash your just tighten up okay okay that's fine okay nicely just really bending nice yeah just tighten down maybe a bit more yup I know but it put some rubber binding around this head to hold it down and that will slowly bring it down to the right that's really holding that's lovely that's such a beautiful curve as Matt that's it you know as the optimistic this is going to hold we'll see I'll just plays that the thing has gone round the former without breaking the archers Edward the third took to France in 1346 were masters of their trade these men trained hard to become fast and accurate but how difficult is it to learn to shoot the longbow proficiently fingers aren't prepared to draw I want to find out how well these beginners will do in just two days of learning the basics of battlefield archery when you're shooting a bow you don't pull it back with your arm there's an expression Bend in the bow you're actually inside the bow you're doing it with the muscles of your back and your shoulders this is hard physical labor and you're really using your whole body so get a good stance that you can put some musculature into it what military actually is all about is getting volume of arrows in the air and so actually what the most important thing is is the knocking and that was the thing you were all worse that what you need to be able to do is you need to be able to get those arrows on the string quickly and you don't actually need to look down to do that place Porsche pearl found it quite awkward without having to do knocking thing and it's quite Columbus and arrow keeps falling out and it's not right and you pull back and boom it goes off draw wait for the draw loose preferably on the same day hood in his workshop Chris is testing my new bow on the tiller to check its draw weight the power needed to pull the bow to full draw look at I can't run that's a thrilling action isn't Chris that has the most exquisite bow I have ever drawn I can't wait to put an arrow on it right now take it away thank you very much angel I can you sure it would like leave the bow is because I really loved that one to ensure they had a ready supply of excellent Bowman English kings of the Middle Ages passed a series of laws enforcing archery practice in 1252 Henry the third ordered that every man between the ages of 15 and 60 had to practice the longbow every Sunday and Edward the third even made the playing of handball bandy ball and foot all illegal because they distracted young men from their archery he needed quality archers for his campaigns in France and they needed to practice it's the second day of the novices training so as ever youth has found idle ways to pass its time very disappointing clearly you think you're good enough I would like to see how much you've progressed so could you take your bows again nope Oh yes not true move honestly that was really good I'm genuinely impressed really clean losers and that's in you know less than 24 hours so I mean it's not the dark arts clearly a bit of intensive training and you can get a body of archers together nope these definitely feel a lot weapons now looking at home you think they're toys growing up with just smaller ones but these are killers serious killers definitely the archers Edward the third took on campaign were lightly armed and highly mobile what I've got here it's a sort of kit that a medieval archer would take on campaign first of course I've got my bow my trusty bow the canvas bag waxed or oil to protect it from the weather similarly my arrows in a waterproof bag I have a rosary because I'm very religious and a hag stone a saint stone because I'm very superstitious I have weapons our falchion broad cutting sword because any battle ends with hand-to-hand fighting and the bowmen had to do their work along with the other soldiers I have food cheese and bread apples and smoked fish simple things which I've probably looted on the way from the local villages all this is very light portable gear so the archer was a very mobile soldier but what is known about the individual archers that Edward took with him who were these long bowmen who would be so effective at crécy hundreds of archers were recruited here in the Peak District in the church at Whaley bridge lies the grave of one of them William Jodrell the arch died 1375 there we have evidence of a man who actually lived and fought in the armies of Edward the third and the Black Prince and a man who was the founder of a Dilla see there's a whole list of Joshua's here Roger Javed his son fought at Agincourt this was a man of substance a man who was the founder of a dynasty he was no humble peasant this unique document dating from 1355 shows that William George Rolie Archer was a man of considerable importance while on campaign in France he was given this pass granting him leave from active service by Royal Warrant it has the black prince's private seal on it an indication of how valued these bowmen really were william Jodrell was probably a high-ranking Archer and most likely a mounted Archer rich enough to take his horse with him on campaign the great advantage of the mounted Archer is mobility ideal for raiding situations and also for deploying quickly to the battlefield where they could keep up with the Knights and there they could dismount and fight alongside the knight each giving protection to the other tactically on the open battlefield the mounted archers fought on foot alongside the infantry archers on the Cressy campaign Edward took 2,500 mounted archers with him and 5,000 regular archers and the regular archers will pay just four points a day quite a good wage but the mounted archers got six months a day and that together with the spoils of war with the plunder they could get from looting made them really quite prosperous men northern France was full of rich pickings by August the English army had filled their saddlebags with loot they caused havoc sacking Khan and skirting around Paris now they were heading for Calais and home but King Philip of France had assembled an enormous army of over 20,000 men he was hot on their heels Philippe was determined to cut the English off from their ships they blocked Edwards escape by destroying all the bridges over this river the Somme and by the time the English got here they could hear the distant rumble of the French army sounding like thunder the English were trapped in August 1346 Edward the thirds army was trapped according to the chronicler fahza King Philippe of France's massive army of over 20,000 men was closing in fast the French had burned all the bridges over this river the Somme and there seemed no way home for the English without a fight then one day they captured a Frenchman a man called GABA a gas and for a bribe he told the English of a secret crossing place a place where at low tide there was a man-made causeway a place could blow stack miss MV at low tide the next day at dawn the English army crossed they could only cross twelve abreast and the chroniclers tell us that the longbowmen went first the water was chestie we can imagine them with their blows above their heads keeping them dry but on the other side with a picady militia led by modern we do Fay and among his troops were some 600 Genoese crossbowmen the longbowman would have been sitting ducks as the bolts from these weapons feathered the water as they were trying to cross they couldn't turn back because of the main French army behind them but how did they manage to cross in the face of so much resistance on the other bank is a tantalizing clue in a manuscript that sits in the bibliothèque nationale in Paris it shows the mounted archers still on their horses galloping and splashing across the Ford shooting their bows as they went if FRA Tsar's account is true then maybe the English mounted archers drove back the pickety militia like this at blush tack the French are hard on their heels they just nipped the English baggage train but main English army got across on August the 24th 1346 the English army avoided Total Annihilation right just a matter of minutes the French had to go round the long way and the rest of the story happened two days later pitched battle lay ahead at crécy but the longbowman would not be the only archers on the field in continental Europe a different type of bow was far more popular the crossbow a mechanical weapon that was easier to shoot than the longbow philip ii of france had up to 6,000 professional crossbowmen in his army the bow part of the early crossbow was made of wood it had to be quite long to prevent it from snapping making it cumbersome the exotic Byzantium princess alicorn Enya who wrote an account of the First Crusade described the European Knights as lying on their backs and spanning the bow by putting their feet on it and drawing it back so they really could get a power advantage by using their legs and their whole body so this really was relatively powerful and then they could get up and shoot it the Europeans experienced in the Crusades however introduced them to a new type of bow technology one that allowed them to make shorter and more powerful bows it was a composite technology a technology which used different materials this is a cross-section of a 15th century crossbow these little squares here are horn and this area around the outside is sinew horn is a material that is good for compression takes great compressive strain and that is the power of the bow to hold it in place they used sinew this stuff like the neck tendon of an ox but if you Hammer it then what happens is you start to get something very fibrous it really becomes the more hammering the more fibrous it gets in fact until it gets like this just like modern fiberglass matting and just like modern fiberglass its held together with a type of glue a type of resin the type they used was this these are the swim bladders from fish and you boil them up and they make the most wonderful glue so this elaborate technology allowed the crossbow to go into the next generation but now with these more powerful bows they needed to devise spanning devices one of the earliest was the belt and claw so they would wear this hook around their waist and they simply had to bend on and they could lift it with the whole body and place it on the string like that ready to shoot they're incredibly ingenious always coming up with new mechanical devices for spanning ever more powerful bows this one's a goat's foot lever later claim the more elaborate rack and pinion but perhaps the most exotic of all it's called the windlass and it really is a fairly time-consuming business you've got to really wind this up but it doesn't able you to use boughs of mighty weight this really will span a very powerful bow and by the 15th century improvements in steel technology allowed bows to be made with steel rods and they were the ones that by far the mightiest punch but by comparison with the longbow the crossbow was an extremely expensive and elaborate piece of kit this was not the weapon of the common soldier it was the weapon of highly professional and specialized mercenaries so we have the old controversy which is best long bow or crossbow long bows going to shoot faster we know it's gonna shoot fast late I think it's been very over exaggerated how much faster especially with something like a belt and claw so I'm gonna give you 30 seconds I think that last 30 seconds with a big onrush of night is the critical time when you're under major pressure I'll say go start with an arrow and a bolt in your hand and then I'll give you 30 seconds and stop when I say stop stand by and go the longbowman has his arrows in the ground by his side this means they're quick to get at much quicker than taking them from a quiver and what's more they're contaminated with bacteria making any wounds more likely to be infected the crossbowmen is behind a large shield called a pavese it gives him cover while he bends down to load his weapon stop so Gordon you got nine off you got four off but it was hard work your wizard hard work but you got four off which is eight crossbow bolts in a minute and that's faster than anyone's ever suggested before the longbow could shoot twice as fast and more than twice as far but at close range the crossbow was deadly the French didn't arm their commoners like the English so instead of using local archers the French hide in Genoese mercenaries they were known to be the best crossbowmen in Europe these mercenaries were a central part of the French battle plan at crécy the idea was the Genoese would form a covering screen for the Knights while they prepared for their great chivalric charge the 20,000 strong French force was too large to cross the tidal for dat launch tank so they went the long way round via Abidine by now the English were waiting for them at crécy the English arrived at the Cressy Ridge the day before the battle it gave them time to rest they could sleep that night and Edward could plan his positions deploy his troops on this slope the perfect terrain for an army defending a position the next day the French took a long time to make their way from Abril and during the day the English had time to eat so they were refreshed and fed French didn't arrive until late afternoon just before they arrived there was a violent storm it soon passed and the Sun came out and warmed the English backs a bright Sun that glared in the Frenchman's eyes to investigate what happened next I've moved down into the valley retracing the steps of the French advance with historian Andrew Aten French coming from other view looking where to sit out the army and oh I come across this and you cannot take a horse down that now that's that's new to me was it was this here at the time they're confronted by the bank at crécy a topographical feature that has never been discussed before in the literature according to scientific evidence has been there for tens of thousands of years and so it's an order it's not a product of agriculture it's a natural feature of the landscape and it must determine the dynamics of the battle in a dramatic way because as you say that the French advancing right across the valley simply couldn't have gone straight over and up the other side the French were forced to enter the valley through this narrow gap below the English position it made it extremely difficult for them to deploy effectively it's a very confined area that being funneled indeed but it is absolutely dictating the terms of his battle he's got the ground they have to take the battle to him and he's saying where you've got to approach from indeed he selected the site which is good for his defensive position but is also determining the approach of the opposition up on the hill the English had a clear view of the chaotic French advance the choice of ground was already dictating the perfect terms for the longbowmen it would chosen ground that will give himself and his archers the best advantage and limit the possibilities that the French have to deploy their own men and it forces the French to bring the battle to the English indeed and how do you think the troops are actually deployed and we read of this idea of the hearse which has been variously interpreted into wedge formations etc what we should be thinking in terms of is a deployment mixing men-at-arms and spearmen with archers so if I'm shooting next to you that he and if you're defending me against the big charge if the cavalry get too close you have a very solid defensive pikemen and indeed this may well be the way we should interpret for Czar's famous hairs as derived from the French word aerosol which is edgehog ah whilst the English forces were carefully deployed and highly disciplined it was a totally different story at the bottom of the hill Philippe's forces were being pushed forward by thousands of troops flooding in from Abbeville eager to engage the English outraged by the violence of the English campaign the French carried the oriflamme flag signifying no quarter to the enemy no prisoners would be taken alive in the vanguard of the French army were Genoese mercenaries crossbowmen and they were being pushed forward by the big press of knights behind an irresistible pressure pushing them in but far more forward position than they were ready for at that point the function of the crossbowmen at this period is to make a covering screen a defensive position from which the knights on their horses could charge forward and retreat to behind their shield or / visas the crossbowmen should have been able to provide cover while a huge French army deployed but at crécy they're / visas were left back on the baggage train they didn't have them they were vulnerable they could feel the sting of the longbow arrows they'd been pushed by the men behind far more forward than they wanted to and they were in range of the longbow they couldn't reach them with their crossbows they did the only sensible thing a professional soldier would do in such circumstances they made a tactical retreat the withdrawal of the January's mercenary was seen by the French as an unforgivable betrayal hot with pride and anger the Duke of allasong cried kill me this rabble and the French Knights set about slaughtering their own crossbowmen before the battle had even begun the French had killed some of their most valuable men it left the English longbowmen as the only archers on the field but their greatest challenge was still to come ahead of them was the might of the French army 12,000 mounted men at arms and night and they were about to bring their great chivalric charge up the hill it was an ultimate test for the long the English longbowmen at the Battle of Crecy were about to face their greatest challenge over 20,000 Frenchmen were preparing to charge the French Knights were confident they could crush the lightly armed English frontline and our tests suggest that the English arrows could only penetrate armor at very close range heavily outnumbered what with the English tactics be so andr we're in the English positions here on the hill and you would reckon the French would be coming from that direction yes they will have arrived at the bottom of the valley valley declare and would be confronted by the English position directly in front of them and before them would have been the first of the English battles that led by the Black Prince and we're standing towards the right end of the line and the big question that means–it's puzzle over is at what range does the longbow become effective and there's a lot of factors to feed into that question one of which of course is how long is it going to take a French cavalry charge to cross that bit of ground and with the help of old Clio here and we've borrowed and we're gonna have a bash are coming from that little Ridge there which would be extreme longbow range and see how long it takes it do you have a timepiece – you know – yes I have a stopwatch here and we'll time the ride this simple experiment will tell us how quickly the French charge could reach the English positions this is quite soft going for horses soft loamy soil a lot short feels it's well great ah we think at the time of Chrissy would have been like this just after a crop how we're coming through the crop really pushing on here bit on girl and we're upon you how long did that take Andrew 40 seconds 40 seconds just 40 seconds it doesn't sound like much but look at the maths and it's terrifying our bowmen can shoot 12 arrows in 40 seconds 7,500 bowmen could shoot 90 thousand arrows during that first French charge brah but how many would have hit the mark and caused real damage it all rather depends on where the arrow hits and at what range to get an idea of the consequences of an arrow storm I've had these life-sized targets made gentlemen you can see these targets ahead of you there representing Knights on horses at different distances so what we want to do is see how well you can hit them changing the range as we go we need a little bit of military urgency with this as if it's in a battle situation so don't fuss too much about aiming but the result is important not draw closer at 100 metres fewer arrows hit home coming they're coming change brain change brain but a close range is a different story well he's not very well is he he's really taken a lot of hits but you know I don't think as many of these hits are as deadly as they look there's some in the shield some have missed him over the neck but one in his Lance the ones that really count are down here these ones and his legs that would bring a horse down instantly it's not fleshy that's gonna drop the horse ones like this in the flank not sure how much damage that would do but it is a very sobering thought to see how quickly a knight and horse can become a pin cushion at close range as the first great French charge swept up the hill at crécy there was little doubt the experienced English archers were aiming for the horses they were by far the softer targets the King of France himself is recorded as having two horses killed beneath him our tests have shown that the night in their armor were much better protected they were only really vulnerable at close range as the arrows hit home at over a hundred and forty miles an hour but once the mounted Knights were unhorsed their formation broken they were easy prey the pride of France was hacked to pieces by sorties of English men at arms but carnage must have been immense yes the French came up sixteen times well some of the chroniclers suggest it went on well into the night into the early hours of the following morning I think perhaps the most evocative description of the carnage below this position here the position of the black Prince's battle is to be found in the King's Own news letter after the battle he says that more than 1,500 French knights and noblemen were killed in a small area where the first onslaught took place because of course once they start to go down yes they actually start to make a barricade in favor of the English and so it's a stopping point it concludes the charge as a remark is's and bodies series are sort of mounds of dead cart and writhing carcasses and very difficult to get through so you're going round them and providing new targets for the archers on the hillside above them it's a horrific scene that down there is only declare after a matter of minutes but not only did they lose the battle not only did they lose such terrible loss of life but it was a real slap in the face for the class in many ways one can characterize the Battle of Crecy is the confrontation between two political communities by the end of the battle the English political community was still intact only two Knights are known by name to have been killed in Edwards arming certainly no noblemen on the French side a nobility had been devastated it is estimated that the total French casualties were up to ten thousand they included some of the most important people in Europe the flower of the French aristocracy lay dead in the valley perhaps the most effective summing up of this from the French perspective is to be found in the grand chronic where he says it's a great shame that so many French noblemen had been killed and brought down by men of no value that is to say archers the Battle of Crecy was an extraordinary victory founded on the perfect combination of expert archers supreme bows and the right tactics it marked the height of the power of the longbow but already at crécy a new sound filled the air the sound of the weapon that was eventually to replace the bow the gun

44 Replies to “MIDIEVAL WEAPONS AND COMBAT – The Longbow (MIDDLE AGES BATTLE HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)”

  1. 7500 Archers firing 6-10 Arrows per minute that's a lot of strength there, the thought of up to 75000 Arrows in a Minute causing carnage.

  2. Most men could not pull a real English war bow to its full extension. They pulled it back to their ear and shot by instinct, never aiming and they were incredibly accurate. To be an archer you had to begin at the age of 10 slowly developing the back muscles and strength needed. This is why other countries couldn't just organize and train archers of their own. If you want a great read about the life of an English archer and archers in battle, try Agincourt by Bernard Cornwell.

  3. This is the first time I've watched a documentary and thought the host of a documentary was too weirdly enthusiastic about the subject matter

  4. 3:07 Yiikes… I can't help, but cringe. that's like $8-$13 USD an arrow they're firing…..

    Even if it could be cheap Chinese carbon or wood which is $50.00 with shipping for a dozen. that's still $50.00 USD…
    Yes of course you can reclaim it, but you might not be able to find it. Especially if its spring, and the weeds are high…

  5. we should bear in mind that the vast majority of common soldiers were not knights and would not have had either armour or mail as they simply could not afford it;  so they were arrow fodder when confronted by hundreds of English and welsh longbowmen.

  6. Europeans killing europeans is the sad part, english and french have destroyed the populations of europe.

  7. Also as in every battle or war, there are general rain, general mud and general snow. These are formidable enemies that have conquered hundreds and hundreds of fighting forces.

  8. As I’ve noted, 7,500 arrows X3 every minute is 22,500 arrows. At that number it is more than likely hundreds of arrows found the unprotected areas of a knights armor.

  9. I think that word should be "mEdieval" and not "mIdieval" – it makes a difference if you want people to believe you. I found it all very interesting just the same. – broadens your mind's horizon

  10. So If I understand well, the power they base their tests on is the Highest possible it could have been, they don't use hardened steel armor, and then they conclude knight could be harmed by the arrows…

    Wut ?

  11. The speed of the mounted cavalry needs to be added to this for an accurate picture. They didnt shoot at specific targets. They set up thousands of arrows,allowing the horse to run into a wall of arrows.

  12. The tag picture on this shows how it was not done 1) "ww1 tin hat" type helms were no good for archers since they interfere with bow drawing to the ear 2) shooting with a high trajectory. Apart from when provoking an enemy (Agincourt, Towton) most shooting is on a flat trajectory where arrows have maximum impact. Too much energy is lost at distant ranges.

  13. That was brilliant mate, we should still be allowed to kill the French, only one a day each ( 2 on Sundays)

  14. My English ancestors were independent farmers and required to be yeomen for the king when called up to serve. (bowmen & dagger were yeomen weapons)

  15. About the arrows not being able to punch through armor

    remember they still wouldve dealt damage and bruised the knight, knocking him back a little and remember that several archers would be shooting at him all at once

    and as the knight is charging forward he is technically charging onto the arrow giving the arrow more penetrating power

    but also its easier to kill the horse and have the rider break bones upon impact with the ground….and then being trampled to death by the horse behind him….

  16. never a mention for the very very young children taken to battle to retrieve arrows from the field for the archers . seen as legitimate targets by the enemy. war was and is an ugly cruel vicious thing .

  17. Fascinating masterpiece of weaponry. I'm reading Harlequin (The Archer's Tale) by Bernard Cornwell, now I understand better what's going on there

  18. ILLEGAL upload buddy, I'll be reporting you for this. You own no rights that would allow you to show this with ads to raise money. Hope you you like it when the BBC contact you for using, their content to illegally gain funds by deception.

  19. I think the misspelling is due to the video having been stolen and republished re-titled by the thief. Maybe someone making money for Al Qaeda.

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